This cluster studies the bio-psycho-social mechanisms which impact the development of physical and mental health. The long term goal is to create effective services to prevent health problems. The research projects use longitudinal, intergenerational and experimental designs with singletons and twins. Genetic and environmental factors are assessed from pregnancy through childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Environmental factors studied include socio-economic status, nutrition, family adversity, parenting practices, health and educational services, Health outcomes include height, weight, body mass index, asthma, metabolic inflammation, cardio-vascular risk, behavior problems, anxiety and depression.